1. Negative space

Let's face it, negative space is the “space between”, an area in and around elements that has its own shape. The universally recognized king and pioneer of the negative space was the artist Maurits Escher: I am sure you have already seen his works and have been puzzled. Escher created many mosaic works in which one form flowed smoothly into another through the negative space, as in the “Sky & Water I”. If you use the negative space wisely and thoughtfully, you can create truly amazing and interesting designs.

2. Symmetry

Scientists have proven that human beings, by their nature, tend to like symmetry. Symmetrical faces, patterns, and designs seem more attractive, effective, and beautiful to us. Symmetry is often used in logos to achieve a harmonious and balanced design. There are many examples of symmetrical logos: Target, McDonald’s, Chanel, Starbucks, etc. Of course, symmetry is not a universal solution for any design - and it should not be. There is a fine line between a balanced and “too symmetrical” design, in which the sides look like identical mirror images of each other. Therefore, instead of chasing a perfectly symmetrical design, try to use only light hints of symmetry in your work.

In addition, symmetry is not always so obvious. Sometimes it is so elusive that you will not even notice it. Vivid examples of invisible symmetry can be found in the design of print media, namely in the design of text blocks. Open any magazine, find a long article and, most likely, you will find that the text is divided into columns, often symmetrical in size - so the article looks more legible, neat and visually more pleasant.

3. Texture

Clean, clear, and smooth graphic design is cool, but sometimes a little “rough” texture doesn’t hurt. The texture makes the design deeper and more tactile and brings interesting effects to it. However, as often happens, this technique needs to be used sparingly: if there are too many textures in the design, it looks overloaded.

4. Balance

Balance is important in all areas of our lives - and in design, of course, too. To master the balance, you need to see the “weight” of each element: from text blocks to pictures. It is necessary to take into account the colors, sizes, shapes of the elements and on the basis of this evaluate their “weight” relative to other details. There is a good way to do this: imagine that your design is printed on a 3D printer. Think what stands out? What outweighs the other elements? One of the varieties of balance is “asymmetric balance”, in which the top/bottom and right/left are not mirror images of each other. Rather, an asymmetric balance is achieved by “balancing” the elements due to size and alignment.

5. Contrast

It often happens that it is the contrast that acts as the main ingredient due to which the design “catches the eye” - and this is exactly what (no matter how sad it may sound) many customers want. In the most basic sense, contrast means the degree of difference between the two design elements. The most common forms of contrast are dark/light, thick/thin, large/small, etc. Contrast also has a huge impact on the legibility and readability of the text - that is why books and other publications are printed in black on a white background. Imagine if publishers used a light gray font on a white background? The contrast would be too low and the font would be difficult to read. Therefore, if there is text in your design, make sure that it is sufficiently contrasted.